Research Interests

Growth / Inequality / Institutions / Financial Development / Defence Economics


For information on published or accepted papers please see my cv, REPEC Page, or Google Scholar .

Recently Published or Accepted Papers

Racial Differentials in the Wealth Effects of the Financial Crisis and Great Recession (with Leslie Muller and Dan Giedeman). Journal of Economics, Race, and Policy. Vol. 1(2): 126-141, 2018. Paper

Banking and Inequality: US State Evidence (with Chen Xu, Daniel Giedeman, and Gary Hoover). The Social Science Journal. Vol.55(4): 396-403, 2018. Paper

Steam Engines of Credit: The Role of Banks in Switzerland’s Economic Development (With Dan Giedeman). Essays in Economic and Business History. Vol.36(1), 121-158, 2018. Paper

More on the Impact of Economic Freedom on the Black-White Income Gap (with Gary Hoover and Dan Giedeman). Public Finance Review, Vol. 46(2), 205-223, 2018. Paper

A Note on Economic Freedom and Political Ideology (with Ji Gu, Gary Hoover and Dan Giedeman). Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 24(13), 928-931, 2017. Paper

Military Spending and Growth: The Role of Institutions (with Bryan Paterson). Defence and Peace Economics,Vol. 27(3), 301-322, 2016. Paper

The Impact of Economic Freedom on the Black/White Income Gap (with Gary Hoover and Daniel Giedeman). American Economic Review, Vol. 105 (5) P&P,587-92,2015. Paper

Economic Freedom and Social Capital. (with Art Carden and Jeremy Jackson).Applied Economics, Vol. 47(54), 5853-5867, 2015. Paper

To receive a copy of any of my pre-2015 publications, send an email to or visit my Researchgate page.

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